In addition, there is evidence of beneficial effects of fish consumption on mental health and prevention of cardiovascular diseases, stroke and age-related macular degeneration. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. The contribution of world aquaculture to global fish production reached 46.0 percent in 2018, up from 25.7 percent in 2000, and 29.7 percent in the rest of the world, excluding China, compared with 12.7 percent in 2000. The major drivers of this trend were China, India, Cambodia, Indonesia, Nigeria, the Russian Federation and Mexico. This ventilation can be accomplished via networks of interconnected soil pores, which also absorb and hold rainwater making it readily available for uptake by plants. In 2018, fish imports by developing countries represented 31 percent of the global total by value and 49 percent by quantity (live weight), compared with 12 percent and 19 percent, respectively, in 1976. (also available at The impact of COVID-19 on fisheries and aquaculture – a global assessment from the perspective of regional fishery bodies. An analysis of how FAO reaches its target audiences illustrates how the flagship publication and the knowledge-base products support the science–to–policy process of global fisheries (Ababouch et al., 2016). In 2008, the Centre National de Formation des Techniciens des Pêches et Aquaculture (in Côte d’Ivoire) designed the FTT-Thiaroye processing technique in collaboration with FAO to significantly improve working conditions, and product quality and safety. The Fifth International Fishing Industry Safety and Health Conference, held in Canada in 2018, showed that annual rates in the fisheries sector in many developed countries remain above 80 fatalities per 100 000 active fishers. ▸ What are the key drivers of change in these sectors, including both threats and opportunities? The projects have provided the beneficiaries with fish and water tanks, fingerlings and fish feed. Worldwide, FAO estimated there were about 67 800 fishing vessels with an LOA of at least 24 m. This figure is the outcome of collaborative work detailed in Box 3 and of the routine work to improve data quality and accuracy. Tripolo, M. & Schmidhuber, J. Global hidden harvest of freshwater fish revealed by household surveys. Cochrane, S. Funge-Smith & F. Poulain, eds. The report adopted standard terminology (Box 9). 2018. 15 Legally binding instruments are agreements concluded by States or international organizations in writing with an intent to create legal rights and duties. [Cited 20 March 2020]. Seaweed farming is practised in a relatively smaller numbers of countries, dominated by countries in East and Southeast Asia. This uneven progress highlights an urgent need to replicate and re-adapt successful policies and measures in the light of the realities of specific fisheries, and to focus on creating mechanisms that can effectively develop and implement policy and regulations in fisheries with poor management. Mozambique Cyclone Idai Post-Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA)DNA. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. Four major species groups account for about 85 percent of total inland water catches. Maintaining the health of aquatic ecosystems is vital in order to meet the nutritional needs of a growing global population in a sustainable way. Regarding the reporting of inland vessels for Europe, although the data trend appears to show an increase in the number of inland vessels, this only reflects a change in reporting. FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture assessments. Poor farming and grazing methods have degraded soils and released much of this sequestered carbon to the atmosphere. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Paper No. [276] It has been shown that some monkeys consume soil, together with their preferred food (tree foliage and fruits), in order to alleviate tannin toxicity. [283], Soil acidification is beneficial in the case of alkaline soils, but it degrades land when it lowers crop productivity, soil biological activity and increases soil vulnerability to contamination and erosion. TOPIC 5. Artisanal fishers are linked to consumers through a vast intraregional trading network, of fresh, salted, dried or smoked fish, in which women play a central role. These non-tariff trade measures include: safety and quality standards; procedures for import licensing; rules of origin and conformity assessment; handling of customs classifications; and valuation and clearance procedures. SmartForms also constitutes an innovative approach to data collection for sectors that are poorly documented and monitored (e.g. The 2020 edition of The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture was completed as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic spread around the world. It can be used to record, track and monitor physical and digital assets in fish supply chains. Europe’s fleet accounts for just over 2 percent of the global total, while Oceania’s share is less than 1 percent, although fishing remains an important activity in the respective regions, and particularly in the fishing communities that are home to these fleets and where the fleets operate. Regional contribution to world fisheries and aquaculture production, 5. This allows fisheries and environmental managers to examine threats and drivers at the level appropriate to their management plans, and it supports an ecosystem approach to fishery management. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116(25): 12238–12243. Number of fish management plans developed for marine and inland capture fisheries in accordance with the Code, as reported by Members, 42. The remaining 17 countries had no discernible trend of increase or decrease in their catch. 2018. FAO. Moreover, stock assessment requires numerical modelling skills. Apart from these widely distributed and highly migratory pelagic fish stocks, other species of conservation importance also traverse ABNJ and the territorial waters of numerous countries, or spend most of their annual cycle in ABNJ (Harrison et al., 2018). Implementation of instruments for access to resources and markets for small-scale fisheries, SDG regional groupings, 2018, 48. of mangroves); the use of harmful chemicals and veterinary drugs; the impact of escapees on wild stocks; inefficient or unsustainable production of fishmeal and fish oil; and social and cultural impacts on aquaculture workers and communities. FAO’s extensive work in the forum of decent work is detailed in the section Social sustainability along value chains, p. 118. Food loss is the decrease in the quantity or quality of food resulting from decisions and actions by food. FAO is not responsible for the content or accuracy of this translation. Effective fish loss and waste reduction requires appropriate policies, regulatory frameworks, capacity building, services and infrastructure, as well as physical access to markets. [76] Insufficient water will damage the yield of a crop. The training package is flexible and offers a range of modules (emergency preparation, outboard-engine repair and maintenance, safety risk management, boat handling, first aid, communication, etc.). Friedman, K., Garcia, S. & Rice, J. It can track most of the world’s large fishing vessels (those longer than 24 m), especially distant-water fleets and vessels on the high seas from upper- and middle-income countries. ASFA is a partnership, established in 1971, to ensure the dissemination of information on aquatic sciences, fisheries and aquaculture. At its core, the blue growth concept seeks to de-couple socio-economic development from environmental degradation by the major users of oceans and inland waters. On top of this, big-data flows, AI and machine learning will generate reports that will inform authorities and the owners of aquaculture farms and fishing vessels in real time. [Cited 22 March 2020]. Sustainability cannot be achieved without biodiversity conservation, and sustainable utilization of fisheries resources in ABNJ is compatible with biodiversity conservation. The roles of both small-scale and inland fisheries are gaining greater attention. Emerging markets, particularly China, are increasingly important targets for exporters and marketers of shrimp, whereas the scope for further growth in the traditional developed markets is limited. [112][113] At the basin scale, the highest threat scores facing inland fisheries, arise from a combination of loss of hydrologic connectivity, water abstraction, low gross domestic product and high population density (this will tend to drive fishing for food), and land-use change and associated runoff. This has helped promote measures to protect benthic habitats and VMEs in particular, especially at the regional level – implemented by RFMOs. International fisheries law (Al Arif, 2018) comprises a number of instruments on fisheries management and conservation, both binding and non-binding,15 negotiated under the umbrella of the United Nations (Figure 39). The Sub-Committee on Aquaculture (of COFI) called for the identification of such initiatives and their documentation and compilation into guidelines. In addition, it befouls sensitive marine habitats (e.g. 3 Gibbs, M.T. One study2 investigated the ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries in five large marine ecosystems (LMEs: North Sea, Barents Sea, Benguela Current, Baltic Sea and North East Continental Shelf of the United States of America) with respect to yield and an aggregate measure of ecosystem impact. Sustainable biosecurity and health management systems established to support the national aquaculture sector. Institutional adaptation is mainly undertaken on the part of public bodies to address legal, policy, management and institutional issues (Box 19). Reduce pre- and post-harvest loss and waste as important vehicles of sustainabilityOver a third of fish and seafood products are lost or wasted. [Cited 23 February 2020]. ▸ Promote and strengthen diverse, inclusive and accountable partnerships to effectively manage ecosystems for both biodiversity and food security. FAO’s global assessment results are published biennially in The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Access to markets generally included actions such as improving traceability, certification and ecolabelling as well as access to market-based instruments, and related capacity building for fishing communities. Major improvements in processing as well as in refrigeration, ice-making and transportation have enabled distribution of fish over long distances, across borders and in a greater variety of product forms. In addition to filter-feeding finfish, freshwater bivalves, including those species that are produced for freshwater pearl production, are now utilized for aquaculture-effluent treatment on individual farms as well as under communal-setting clustering of several farms. ASFA’s international partnership model also ensures representation from institutions worldwide, countering publication bias and ensuring that the valuable research performed in countries and regions under-represented by traditional publishers is not lost. It is unclear whether the continued increase in catches was caused by changes in fishing patterns and resource productivity or an artefact created by problems in catch data collection and reporting. This is particularly relevant in developing countries. [70] The amount of water remaining in a soil drained to field capacity and the amount that is available are functions of the soil type., Palomares, M.L.D. 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